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Armenian Genocide Timeline: 1916
History - Timeline


The Armenian deportees concentrated in Suruj District, near Urfa, are sent out toward Der-el-Zor (Deir el-Zor) under very severe winter conditions, completely lacking food, shelter, and suitable clothing.


Mustafa Abdulhalik Renda seeks to oust Ali Suad, the Arab governor of Der-el-Zor (Deir el-Zor) District for lack of severity by applying directly to Talaat.


The immediate deportation to the desert of the Armenians working on the railroads or in railway construction is ordered.


Instructions are sent to prevent foreign officers from photographing dead Armenians.


U.S. Ambassador Henry Morgenthau during his farewell visit with Talaat is told of the pointlessness of speaking about the Armenians.


A second circular telegram is issued by the Interior Ministry to prevent photographing of the dead.


The governor-general of Aleppo is instructed to send the Armenians deported from the northern provinces directly to their final destinations.


The governor-general of Aleppo informs Talaat that only 10% of the Armenian deportees remain alive, and that measures are being taken to dispose of them also.


A French translation of a spurious book prepared by Talaat's office charging the Armenians with treason and revolution is published.


During this period of 47 days, of 486,000 Armenian deportees, 364,500 are reported to have been killed by the Turks or to have died because of the hardships of the deportations.


The War Ministry orders all Armenian soldiers remaining alive in the Turkish armies to be converted to Islam and to be circumcised.


The governor-general of Aleppo orders the vice-governor of Aintab to deport the remaining Armenian women in Aintab.


German Marshal Colmar von der Goltz is appointed Commander of the Eastern Front.


A circular telegram orders the destruction of orphans.


50,000 Armenian remnants are reported concentrated at Intille (Intili).


The Interior Ministry provisionally exempts from deportation Armenians needed for the running of the railways. Their families and children, however, are ordered to be deported to the desert.


The Interior Ministry orders the deportation of the Armenians constructing roads as soon as the construction work is finished.


The vice-governor of Aintab District informs the governor-general of Aleppo Province that the Armenian women and children have been handed over to Kurds.


In a period of two and a half days, 1,029 Armenians die of the rigors of the deportations in the town of Bab, northeast of Aleppo.


According to Lord Bryce, 486,000 Armenians deportees were still living: 100,000 were to be found between Damascus and Maan, 12,000 at Hama, 20,000 at Homs, 7,000 at Aleppo, 4,000 at Maara, 8,000 at Bab, 5,000 at Munbij (Munbuj), 20,000 at Ras-el-Ain (Ras ul-Ain), 10,000 at Rakka, and 300,000 at Zor.


A circular telegram instructs that orphans who do not remember their parents be send from Aleppo to Sivas; the rest are to be send to Der-el-Zor (Deir el-Zor) and no expenditures are to be made for their existence.


Marshal Liman von Sanders replaces Marshal Colmar von der Goltz as Commander of the Caucasian, or Eastern, Front.


Mustafa Abdulhalik Renda, the governor-general of Aleppo Province, and the Aleppo Commissioner of Police begin to remove 10,000 Armenian deportees from the environs of Aleppo.


The commander of the labor battalions for the railroad in Cilicia is instructed to deport the wives of the workers and to tell them that their husbands will follow them.


The deportation commissioner in Aleppo requests funds from the Interior Ministry to cover to the expenses of destroying the orphans.


Erzberger, a German Reichstag representative, visits Enver and Talaat, to protest the massacres and the excesses of the deportations.


50,000 Armenians are reported murdered at Intille (Intili).


On this date 50,000 deportees are reported at Ras-el-Ain (Ras ul-Ain).


An American application to send relief to the Armenians is rejected by Turkey.


Talaat sends a circular letter to Urfa, Aintab and Kilis requesting documents to indict the Armenians.


The Russian Army occupies Erzerum. Only a handful of captive Armenian women are found alive in the entire province.


Marshal Liman von Sanders claims to have stopped the deportation of many Armenians from Adrianople (Edirne).


Tahir Jevdet, Enver's brother-in-law, the governor-general of Van Province, travels via Ras-el-Ain (Ras ul-Ain) to Adana, where shortly before he had been appointed governor-general, replacing Ismail Hakki.


U.S. Secretary of State Robert Lansing asks the German Ambassador Bernstorff to stop the Armenian tragedy.


Henry Morgenthau arrives in New York.


Count Wolff-Metternich, the German ambassador in Turkey, visits Talaat and Halil Bey, the newly-appointed Minister of Foreign Affairs, to discuss the Armenian Question with them because of the representations of the United States to the German government.


A few Armenian soldiers in Turkish Army in Aleppo are forcibly converted to Islam.


The second deportation of the Armenians of Adrianople (Edirne) begins.


The Interior Ministry is informed from Aleppo that the Armenians who fled from Mardin had been killed.


A circular telegram instructs that Armenians of military age are to be put to work only outside inhabited areas.


A report is send to the Interior Ministry from Aleppo informing that 75% of the Armenians previously in the desert are now dead, and only 25% remain alive.


Kerim Refi, described as a very savage Rumelian Turk, who is appointed vice-governor of Ras-el-Ain (Ras ul-Ain) arrives from Constantinople. He speeds up the massacres of the Armenian deportees concentrated in Ras-el-Ain (Ras ul-Ain), which had gotten off to a slow start. The massacres extend over a period of five months. Kerim Refi utilizes primarily chete forces, including one extremely wild tribe of Circassians.


Talaat is informed from Aleppo that 95,000 Armenians had died from sickness and other causes in the past week: 30,000 in Ras-el-Ain (Ras ul-Ain), 35,000 in Bab and Meskene, 10,000 in Karluk (Karlik), and 20,000 in Dipsi, Abu Herir (Abuharar), and Hama.


Instructions are sent to seize the Armenian orphans with the pretext of giving them food and to kill them.


In Aleppo an attempt is made to force all Armenian soldiers in labor corps to become Muslims and to give up their Armenian names.


The Turkish government officially rejects foreign relief for the Armenian deportees.


14,000 Armenians are massacred in Ras-el-Ain (Ras ul-Ain). 24,000 deportees are reported still living in Ras-el-Ain (Ras ul-Ain).


By this date, 70,000 Armenians are reported massacred at Ras-el-Ain (Ras ul-Ain).


The Russian Army occupies Trebizond. With the exception of a few Armenian orphans and widows secretly sheltered by Greeks, no Armenians are found in the city.


A battalion of the Turkish 4th Army Engineers arrives in Ras-el-Ain (Ras ul-Ain) from Damascus to assist in massacring the Armenians.


19,000 Armenian deportees arrive near the Khabur River.


The New York Times reports that German Catholics had placed the number of massacred Armenians at 1,000,000, and that they held England at fault for this great crime.


50 to 100 Armenian deportees are reported to be dying of starvation every day in Meskene, Abu Herir (Abuharar), Sabkha (Sebka), and Hammam (Hamam).


The Turkish government again rejects foreign relief for the Armenians.


According to The New York Times, before the fall of Erzerum, 15,000 Armenians had been massacred in the nearby town of Mamakhatun, west of the city of Erzerum.


Shaikh-ul-Islam (Turkish religious chief) Khairi resigns under pressure. Musa Kiazim, a war criminal, succeeds him as Shaikh-ul-Islam and as Minister of Pious Foundations.


1,400 Armenian orphans are distributed to various places by the Ittihad Committees.


News is received concerning the fate of 19,000 deportees in one caravan, of whom 16,500 are reported killed on the banks of the Khabur River, northeast of Der-el-Zor (Deir el-Zor), and 2,500 survivors are reported having arrived at Mosul.


72,000 Armenian deportees are reported in Der-el-Zor (Deir el-Zor) District.


The New York Times reports that 80,000 Armenians had died of starvation around Damascus.


60,000 Armenian deportees are reported scattered between Hejaz District in central Arabia and Aleppo in northern Syria.


The report of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions on the massacres of Erzerum is published.


All the Armenians remaining in the Aleppo area are ordered to leave for Der-el-Zor (Deir el-Zor).


The Arab governor of Der-el-Zor (Deir el-Zor) District, Ali Suad, is sent to Baghdad for refusing to carry out the extermination of the deportees. He is replaced by Salih Zeki, the former vice-governor of Everek in Kayseri Province, reputed for his cruelty.


The Armenians working in labor corps in Sivas are instructed to convert to Islam. At least 95% refuse.


7,000 Armenian soldiers stationed in Sivas are imprisoned for nine days in the old Seljuk buildings where formerly the civilian Armenian leaders and intellectuals had been imprisoned before being killed.


Ambassador von Wolff-Metternich reports to the German Chancellor that Ittihad is devouring the remaining Armenian refugees.


On the argument that those who refuse are going to be deported into the desert again, the proposal is made to the Armenian labor battalions in Damascus and to the civilian deportees that they become Muslims. Very few Armenians accept.


Lord Bryce submits to Lord Grey, British Secretary of Foreign Affairs, his book on The Treatment of the Armenians in the Ottoman Empire.


The massacre of the 7,000 Armenian troops imprisoned in Sivas begins. The massacre lasts for twenty-one days with an average of 1,000 killed every three days.


The Russian Army occupies Bayburt and Erzinjan.


The U.S. Congress proposes a day of commemoration for the collection of funds for the Armenians.


The Turkish Army on the Caucasian Front loses 60,000 men to starvation, disease and other causes, leaving effectively only 20,000. Marshal Liman von Sanders attributes these losses to the destruction of Turkish agricultural production because of the deportations of the Armenians.


The U.S. House of Representatives adopts the resolution introduced in the U.S. Senate establishing a day of commemoration for the Armenian victims.


In order to further the Islamization and Turkification of the Armenian remnants in the Hawran District, all the Armenian clerics found there are murdered by the Turks.


The proposal is made to the Armenian military doctors in Sivas that they become Muslims. Almost all refuse and are at once killed.


The Interior Ministry abolishes the Armenian Patriarchate and the legal rights of the Armenian community (the Millet Ermeni) on the grounds that there was no Armenian community left in Turkey.


Newly-appointed U.S. Ambassador to Turkey, Abram E. Elkus, leaves for Constantinople.


15,000 Armenian deportees are removed from Aleppo to the desert.


The Turkish government again refuses aid to the Armenian deportees by a neutral commission.


Salih Zeki, the governor of Der-el-Zor (Deir el-Zor), informs Talaat that he is changing the location of the deportees.


200,000 Armenian deportees are reported killed in massacres by this date in the Zor District, at a delta formed by the juncture of the Khabur and Euphrates River near Suwar (Suvar), Marrat (Marat), and Elbusayra.


A five member commission of Turks arrives in the Hawran District to convert the Armenian deportees to Islam.


The government orders all Armenian orphans to be given Turkish names.


60,000 more Armenian deportees are reported massacred in the Der-el-Zor (Deir el-Zor) area.


Turkish authorities enter American consular offices to search for British records.


The German Cabinet, in its 86th session, discusses the Armenian massacres.


Count Wolff-Metternich leaves his post as ambassador to Turkey, recalled by the German General Staff at the request of Enver because he had protested against the Armenian massacres. Wilhelm Radowitz is interim ChargÈ d'affaires for Germany until November 16 and the arrival of the new ambassador, Richard von Kuhlmann.


Wilhelm Radowitz reports to the German Chancellor Theobald von Bethman Hollweg that of the two million Armenians in Turkey, one and half million had been deported. Of these 1,175,000 were dead; 325,000 were still living.


The Turkish government confiscates by a provisional law all the real estate of the Armenians.


U.S. President Woodrow Wilson, acting on the resolution of Congress, proclaims these two days "Armenian Relief Days."


A highly secret Ittihad convention is convened in Constantinople to review existing policy toward the Armenians and to decide on a future course of action.


The appointment of the new German ambassador in Constantinople, Richard von K¸hlmann, who serves until July 1917, when he is promoted to the office of Foreign Minister.


Omer Naji, an inspector-general of the Ittihad Committee, is reported to have announced that Ittihad is seeking to organize a purely Turkish state.

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Hymns and Poems Through Which the Armenians Have Cried Out Against their Persecution

December 4, 1915

IN this time of bitter grief among the Armenian people, readers of THE SURVEY may like to look into their thoughts and aspirations as revealed in their poetry. For among the people of many nationalities that have been flung into the American melting pot, the Armenians have one of the most interesting and heroic histories.


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